Imperiled polar bears face new threat in Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Imperiled polar bears face new threat in Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

In the Arctic, wildlife is being forced to adapt to an environment warming twice as fast as any other region on the planet. That constantly changing climate impacts the way sea ice grows and melts, which is bad news for the wildlife dependent on sea ice and people whose survival is inextricably linked to the ice.

In some areas of the Arctic, female polar bears are more frequently choosing to build their maternity dens on land rather than sea ice. The land provides the stability and security that sea ice no longer can—at least until human activity comes into the picture.

Threatened species
In the US, polar bears are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, and the Southern Beaufort Sea polar bear subpopulation is one of the most imperiled in the world. Its size is almost half of what the subpopulation was in the mid-1980s with only around 900 bears estimated to be remaining today.

The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge has become a nursery ground for these polar bears, with one of the highest densities of suitable denning habitat in northern Alaska. About one-third of all breeding females in the Southern Beaufort Sea subpopulation give birth and raise newborn cubs under the protection provided by the coastal plain.

But much like the sea ice that’s disappearing from our warming planet, the protection provided by Arctic refuge could vanish, too.

Seismic impact
The US government has approved opening parts of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to allow for oil and gas drilling. The first step of that process includes seismic testing along the coastal plain to help determine the location of deposits of oil and gas.  

Seismic testing is a very disruptive activity. In the coastal plain, it will require big heavy trucks that drive across the snow-covered tundra, laying lines in a grid pattern. The equipment vibrates and produces noisy blasts. The private company proposing to conduct the seismic studies says it will detect any of the bear dens before beginning the work. However, the technology to detect polar bear dens is not perfect and experts believe that some bears will definitely be impacted, or even killed.

If denning polar bears are disturbed, mother bears may exit the den prematurely with their cubs, exposing them to the extreme elements and risking their survival. Cubs could also be abandoned. According to an analysis by Polar Bears International, there’s at least a one-in-four chance that the seismic equipment will run over and crush at least one den. That’s based on the equipment that would be needed and the known concentration of polar bear dens in the area.

It's time to act
WWF is calling for the permanent protection of the Arctic Refuge Coastal Plain, and we need your help. Protect polar bears from seismic testing.



Published December 10, 2018 at 06:00AM

Dishing the dirt on the secret life of soil

Dishing the dirt on the secret life of soil

Soil is a lot more than just dirt.

It’s a living, breathing ecosystem that’s home to a quarter of all species on Earth. That richness of life is what supports forests and prairies; biodiversity in the soil also enhances agriculture. Many underground organisms process the nutrients that allow plants to flourish above ground. They also protect plants from disease, help soil store more water, make nitrogen and other key elements more readily accessible, and enable plants to communicate with each other. They even help fight climate change by pulling greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere and turning them into food and oxygen.

Yet agriculture, which needs soil, is the leading cause of its erosion. Indeed, healthy soil is disappearing from the surface of the earth at a rate of about 24 billion tons a year.

That’s why WWF is working with food and forestry companies, farmers, scientists, banks, policymakers, and others to foster practices that enrich soil and the diversity of life within and above it.

Here are some examples of the types of living creatures in soil that make it such a vibrant, vital habitat.

Millipedes

Visible to the naked eye, millipedes are practically giants at ground level. They sit atop the soil food chain, where they start turning dead plants and other organisms into food for living plants. Their waste feeds bacteria and fungi, which process it further into molecules that plants absorb. Insects like the turtle-mite feed directly on fungi. While others, like some beetles, protect plants by eating crop pests.

Nematodes

Resembling tiny worms, nematodes wriggle around in the soil turning things that plants can’t eat into things they can. Some eat bacteria and fungi and excrete ammonia, which gardeners and farmers alike know is an effective fertilizer. But, it’s a jungle down there in the soil and helpful nematodes eat disease-causing bacteria, fungi, and even other harmful nematodes.

Tardigrades

Also known as water bears, tardigrades may be our planet’s most resilient animal. They can be found in scorching deserts and frozen tundra and can survive even in the vacuum of space! Underground, where conditions are far more pleasant, these barrel-chested, eight-legged eating machines digest food, making the nutrients available for plants, and sometimes fend off microbes known to do plants harm, including nematodes.

Bacteria

There are several times the number of bacteria in our bodies than the number of our own cells. Mostly, these microbes keep us healthy and nourished by breaking down the food we eat into nutrients our cells can absorb. They serve a similar purpose in the soil, which contains up to 1 billion bacteria per teaspoon. There, they digest food for plants, yielding nutrients critical for plants and people alike.

Fungi

Mushrooms aren’t the only kinds of fungus underground. Many forms of microscopic fungi live on and around plants’ roots. They bind soil, holding it more firmly in place, similar to the way roots do at a visible scale. Fungi also form vast underground networks that plants tap into via their roots and use like a living Internet to communicate with each other. Scientists have observed plants sending signals through fungal networks to warn neighboring plants of insect infestation, drought, and other threats.

 



Published December 05, 2018 at 06:00AM

Why global leaders must address climate change now

Why global leaders must address climate change now

Global leaders are now gathered in Poland for the United Nations-sponsored climate talks (COP24). The summit marks the most significant meeting on climate change since leaders signed the Paris Agreement in 2015. On the heels of the recent report from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change the US government National Climate Report, WWF’s Lou Leonard explains why these climate talks are more critical now than ever

Just how significant is COP24 going to be when it comes to tackling issues related to climate change?

These climate talks are the most important round of negotiations since the Paris Agreement was reached three years ago. Recent reports from the world’s scientists have sounded the alarm on climate change. Fires in California and Australia and floods in Japan show that climate impacts are already a reality for millions. People from around the globe will be watching to see what world leaders accomplish at this round of negotiations. It’s the biggest test we’ve seen of countries’ commitment to the Paris Agreement.

What are your hopes for the summit – do you think anything of real significance can be achieved?

In Poland, countries need to accomplish two things. Countries need to finalize the rules that govern how the Paris Agreement will work going forward. Countries will be agreeing on things like how to report their progress on national climate targets, how carbon market systems will connect across countries and how wealthier nations will support others who need it. It is essential we leave this round of talks with a clear signal that countries will increase their national climate targets before 2020 in order to address the looming gap between current commitments and what’s needed to limit the worst impacts of climate change.

How important is it for world leaders to step up to the plate during COP24? 

There is still time for us to prevent the worst impacts of climate change and create a safer future, but that window is closing fast. If countries do not submit stronger national goals before 2020, it will be very hard to deliver on the Paris Agreement’s goals to limit planetary warming to safer levels. As recent reports make very clear, if we don’t tackle climate change, it will cost our economy billions and endanger our national security and our health. Stepping up now to move toward renewable energy, more sustainable agriculture and electric cars can yield economic benefits. The longer we wait, the more our communities will suffer under bigger wildfires, longer heatwaves, more severe droughts and shrinking crop yields. We can’t afford that future.

How much progress has been made in the fight against climate change since COP21?

The Paris Agreement was a sea change among countries, companies and other leaders. Now, every nation in the world has a goal to reduce carbon pollution, and most are making progress to meet their targets. The private sector and leaders from regional government have woken up to their own power by setting climate goals consistent with science and helping drive the transition to renewable energy, sustainable food systems and clean transport. In key countries, companies and local governments have begun to work hand in hand with national governments to reduce emissions and make climate action a win for political leaders. This kind of cooperation between governments and the private sector should make it easier to ramp up country targets under the Paris Agreement by 2020 on the scale the science says we need to.



Published December 04, 2018 at 06:00AM

Critically endangered Sumatran Rhino moved to new home

Critically endangered Sumatran Rhino moved to new home

Pahu the Sumatran Rhino is settling into a new home. Just like with humans, a move can be stressful for an animal. But veterinarians and scientists are monitorning Pahu closely and are optimistic she will adjust well.

The rhino’s relocation is part of a larger strategy to save the critically endangered Sumatran Rhino. The species is facing a very real and imminent threat of extinction. Decades of poaching and habitat loss have left fewer than 80 Sumatran rhinos in the wild.

The last remaining Sumatran rhinos live on two Indonesian Islands--Sumatra and Kalimantan. They are so widely dispersed that they struggle to find compatible mates and successfully breed to produce their next generation. The biggest threat they now face is isolation, and the odds of adult rhinos finding suitable mates in the wild are dwindling.

Facing this dire situation, the Indonesian Government, WWF and and rhino experts from around the world together concluded that saving the Sumatran rhino requires the capture of most of the remaining isolated animals in order to consolidate their populations in managed sanctuaries and facilitate their breeding. 

The ultimate goal is to increase Sumatran rhino numbers so that they can eventually be returned to the wild in secure habitat areas. Recently, and in support of the Indonesian Government’s efforts, a coalition of international conservation organizations, including WWF, National Geographic, IUCN, International Rhino Foundation, and Global Wildlife Conservation, launched a new program to reach this ambitious and urgent target.

The Sumatran Rhino Rescue, as this joint effort is called, has started to bear fruit. Last month, the Indonesian Government announced that a first Sumatran rhino, a female named Pahu, was successfully rescued from a small isolated forest patch in Kalimantan, with the support of WWF, local partners and Sumatran Rhino Rescue.

Veterinarians on site indicated that Pahu was in good health and was fit for transport to a designated sanctuary in less than 100 miles from the capture site. Pahu arrived safely at the sanctuary and appears to have handled the move well.  

“Rescuing Pahu was time sensitive and critical to her survival,” said Ginette Hemley, Senior Vice President for Wildlife Conservation at WWF. “Pahu’s habitat was located in a mining concession and was literally being chopped away. We are cautiously hopeful that Pahu’s rescue is a first successful step in the survival of this amazing creature.”

Over the next several weeks and months, husbandry experts and veterinarians will monitor Pahu’s health and assess her breeding viability.

The rescue of Pahu is the first of a series of captures and translocations that are expected to take place as the new expanded captive breeding program gets underway. Although not without its risks, this may well be the last chance to secure the survival of the Sumatran rhino.



Published December 04, 2018 at 06:00AM

Handcrafted beauty from around the globe

Handcrafted beauty from around the globe

Local communities and indigenous people are crucial stewards of the natural places WWF works to conserve. They depend on forests, fisheries and wildlife for their traditional way of life. Over generations, many have acquired knowledge and learned practices to sustainably use and protect natural resources. By working together, we can help strengthen their role in safeguarding the environment while also improving their livelihoods and health. The handicrafts are a small thank you for your support of WWF and all its programs.


 

Felt Ornaments from Nepal

Crafted by Nepali artisans in Kathmandu, these vibrantly colored ornaments are fashioned using the ancient technique of felting to create festive animal shapes. This set includes an elephant, a tiger, and a narwhal, ranging from 3" to 3 ½" tall.


 

Wild Jewelry Necklace

Jewelry that is fashionable… and sustainable! This stylish necklace is crafted from wild rubber tapped in the Amazonian rain forest. Promoting positive social and environmental impact through jewelry design, projects support small producers and artisans, empower local communities and help to preserve the forest. Through the Amazon Region Protected Areas, an initiative of the government of Brazil and supported by WWF since the beginning, nearly150 million acres of rain forest are now protected—the largest tropical rain forest conservation project in history.


 

Thirty Hills Bracelets

These bracelets are hand woven from natural materials collected in the Thirty Hills forest of Sumatra, Indonesia, by indigenous Talang Mamak craftspeople. They are crafted from sustainably harvested rattan and bamboo.Through a conservation concession —a lease of the land—covering 100,000 acres of rain forest, WWF and its partners are joining forces with local communities in an innovative initiative to actively manage Thirty Hills.


 

Basket from Uganda

This handcrafted basket from Uganda is rooted in tradition. It is made using natural dyes, woven into modern-day designs. It is an ethically sourced Authentic Fair Trade product. Basket measures 12” deep and 3” high. No two designs are alike.

This holiday season, make a gift in support of our global conservation efforts and choose from these items—and over 200 more—to share with your loved ones.



Published December 03, 2018 at 06:00AM

Mega dam project could drive Argentina’s hooded grebes to extinction

Mega dam project could drive Argentina’s hooded grebes to extinction

Ignacio “Kini” Roesler spent three years surveying hooded grebes in Argentina’s Patagonian wilds without finding a single breeding colony. Then, suddenly, his survey team stumbled upon a lagoon with 20 hooded grebe nests floating on its surface. Elated, they left to pick up monitoring and camping equipment for a longer site visit. But when they returned, the grebes had mysteriously vanished.

“We were so disappointed,” says Roesler, now an assistant professor for Argentina’s National Council of Scientific Research and the conservation director for Aves Argentinas, a bird conservation group. They did, however, find a tiny colony of four nests on the property of a gaucho—a cowboy in South America’s treeless plains—tending some sheep. “We stayed there four days to monitor them, and I got to see a hooded grebe chick hatch for the first time,” Roesler says.

PROTECT THE SANTA CRUZ RIVER

Damming the Santa Cruz River, the last free-flowing glacial river running from the Andes to the sea, would affect its course. Altering its course would change the natural course of the Argentino Lake as we know it.

Take action

For Roesler, the hatching marked a victory in the battle to save one of Argentina’s most emblematic and endangered birds. Hooded grebes live only in Santa Cruz Province, where they were discovered in 1974. In the 1980s, their population numbered around 5,000. But since then, a lethal combination of climate change—which is transforming Patagonia—and competition with invasive species has reduced their population by more than 80%.

Roesler says the species’ population has stabilized and even begun to grow slightly thanks to a decade of conservation work by Aves Argentina, Ambiente Sur, and a host of other conservation partners. But now, all that progress could be erased by a pair of mega dams in construction on the Santa Cruz River.

The hydropower project is expected to significantly alter the flow of the river and harm a variety of local species, including hooded grebes. But due to an incomplete environmental impact assessment of the project, nobody knows just how much damage it could cause.

“Usually the impact of mega dams on downstream estuaries is very big because they change the water level, but there aren’t any studies of how these specific dams could affect the estuary of the Santa Cruz River,” Roesler says. “What we do know is that for the last few years, 95% of the hooded grebe population spends part of the winter in that estuary. These dams are basically a death sentence.”

Beyond harming particular species, the dams could flood an area almost twice as big as the capital of Buenos Aires, destroy important archaeology sites, and negatively affect the Perito Moreno Glacier, one of the country’s biggest tourist attractions. Aves Argentina, Ambiente Sur, Fundacion Vida Silvestre Argentina (WWF’s partner organization in Argentina), and other conservation groups are calling for the national and provincial governments to halt construction of the dams and invest in renewable energy sources to meet the country’s rising energy demand.

If the construction continues, Argentina could quickly lose one of its most famous birds. “Hooded grebes have unique markings and some of the most elaborate mating dances, and they’re adapted to live in an extremely harsh environment,” Roesler says. “Everybody knows and loves them but it’s hard to see them because they live in such a remote place. They’re becoming the panda of Argentina.”



Published November 26, 2018 at 06:00AM

New partners join national governments to fight climate change

New partners join national governments to fight climate change

In 2015, nearly 200 countries signed a historic agreement in Paris that established the world’s first truly global plan to tackle climate change. Now, three years later, there’s still a significant gap between the pledges countries made to reduce emissions of heat-trapping gases and what’s actually needed to limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C and stave off the worst impacts of a warming planet.  

And though world leaders will meet in December to ramp up efforts mapped out in the Paris Agreement— climate change is not just their problem alone to solve.  All sectors of the economy—states, cities, businesses, and more—have a crucial role to play in closing the emissions gap. Many of these new leaders will travel to the talks to show their continued commitment to climate action.

“There’s a new face of climate leadership emerging from around the world: CEOs, university presidents, civil society, and leaders from local government and indigenous communities,” said Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, WWF’s global climate and energy practice lead. “They are demanding climate action and partnering together to accelerate implementation in key countries. This is a global groundswell and we are all in.”

Take a look at how groups are coming together around the world:

Argentina
In November, a new coalition of Argentinian businesses, cities, investors, civil society, and universities banded together to form the Alianza para la Acción Climática Argentina. Members include clothing company Patagonia, cosmetics company Natura, the capital city of Buenos Aires, University of El Salvador, and the association of 2,000 agro-commodity producers in Argentina called CREA. Together this coalition represents over 13 million citizens and over 30% of the nation’s economy.

Mexico
In August, more than 35 Mexican entities—from universities to local governments—officially signed a declaration stating that they will work together to advance the country’s goal of reducing up to 36% of its greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.

Japan
in July, nearly 300 companies, cities, investors and other partners are part of the Japan Climate Initiative, a group dedicated to realizing a carbon-free society and expanding renewable energy across the country. The group is comprised of local governments from many of Japan’s major cities, like Tokyo and Yokohama, and small businesses, and major companies such as Sony and Panasonic Corp.,

United States
When the US government announced that it would withdraw from the historic Paris agreement, We Are Still In was formed to ensure the US remains a global leader in reducing emissions. We Are Still In has grown to 3,600 signatories collectively representing 155 million Americans and $9.5 trillion of the US economy. 

All of these climate coalitions are partners of the Alliances for Climate Action (ACA), a new global network—supported by WWF and our partners—working to speed up individual countries’ progress towards climate targets.

According to the United Nations, action by businesses and local leaders around the globe has the potential to halve the emissions gap. But if we’re going to avoid 2°C of global warming, then a greater collective action is needed.

Through the Alliances for Climate Action, WWF and partners will continue to support and grow these new leaders dedicated to pursuing immediate climate action. 



Published November 20, 2018 at 06:00AM

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